Total Pageviews

Tuesday, July 15, 2014

kAnchi paramAchArya satsangam-shAshtrArtha

Shastras' Valuable Truths: Sri PeriyavAL's Elucidation
author:..... Dr. R.Krishnamurthy SastrigaL, Mylapore, Chennai - 600004
compiler:... T.S. Kothandarama Sarma
book:....... MahA PeriyavAL - Darisana AnubhavangaL vol. 1, pages 177-196
publisher:.. Vanathi Padhippaham (Aug 2006 Edition)
translator: saidevo

Translating this essay was a tough task for me who is not much exposed to the Sanskrit sentences and phrases of the Shastras discussed here. Although I can understand and translate their meaning, there is bound to be errors in my transliteration of the Sanskrit verses and phrases. I shall be grateful if members would point out and correct them then and there. What does the phrase 'tRtIya vipakti abheda' mean?

Since this is a long thread published under a single chapter title in the book I shall post it in instalments so members can read it easily.
-- saidevo

Pages 177-182

Sri PeriyavAL would give many apUrva, sUkSma (rare and subtle) elucidations of verses from all the Shastras at the end of the Sabhas of Vidvans (pundits) from many disciplines that he conducts. We cannot find these elucidations in any Bhashyas or other Granthas. I have got the great bhAgyam of compiling those rare elucidations that he told in Sabhas and to me privately and present a write-up of them.

1. aNoraNIyAn

[aNoraNIyAn mahato mahIyAn Atmasya jantor nihito guhayAm
"Smaller than the smallest atom is the Atman. Most expansive is He, greater than the great. Because He is the innermost existence in every thing, He is seated in the hearts of all beings." -- Swami Krishnananda's commentary]

This mantra occurs in our Narayaneeya Upanishad. PeriyavAL gives a wonderful elucidation for this mantra.

idam (place): near Kanchi (a spot on the way to Orirukkai).

samayam (time): the day of the Vyasa Puja.

sandarbham (occasion): Evening around four o' clock after the Vyasa Puja was held in a leisurely way. The beginning stage of the vAkyArtha sabhA (word by word discussion forum) of the Pandits.

"Now, till this time I was the vyAsa pUjAkarta, you people its witnesses. The multitudinous gurus, deities are all a single Paramatma only; there is no bhedam (distinction) at all. Being two is just a mere appearance. Only the ParamPoruL is the Satyam that appears as the multiple forms. It is explained in this aNoraNIyAn mantra: 'One who is smaller than the atom and (at the same time) greater than the greatest (which is the universe) is the Atma that remains in the hRudaya guhA (heart's cave)' is the mantrArtham (meaning of the mantra).

"If this meaning is to suit (this verse) completely, there should be only One Thing. If there be a Second, in comparison, This can only be either bigger or smaller (than the Other). It cannot be both. If a man says, 'This is the eldest of my elder sons and the youngest of my younger sons', then it is certain that he has only one son.

"But then initially this philosophy of Advaita will not be intelligible. Only after we do all the puja, punaskArya (winding up the puja) as bhagavatArpaNam (dedicated to God) and then do the shravaNa, manana, nididhyAsana (study, reflection, meditation), this will be understood. It is that philosophy of Advaita that Vyasa has deduced in the Brahma Sutra. These people who are pandits in that Sutra Bhashyam are now going to give you the vAkyArtha. Everyone should listen to it and attain the state of Advaita."

2. brahmavidApnoti param

This vAkyam is in the beginning of the Ananda Valli of our Taittiriya Upanishad.

The day of completion in Kanchi MaTham, of the visheSa satas (special assembly) of the Advaita Sabha. On the morning of that day PeriyavAL gave a rare elucidation to this vAkyam.

"brahmavidApnoti param--in this (sentence) there are four padams (words): brahma, vid, Apnoti, param. For these four words, a Rik (mantra) in four pAdAs (a quarter of a four-versed stanza) gives the explanation.

"It is customary in the Veda to do the vyAkhyAnam (explanation) of the mantras, in the BrahmaNa. But here, for the brAhmaNa vAkyam brahmavidApnoti, the vyAkhyAnam is given in the mantra which is Rik rUpa. Mostly in the Upanishads, mantras occur here and there to either confirm or explain what is said in the BrahmaNa. It occurs in those places as tatheSap yuktA--this Rik says the same thing given above.

"For the term brahma, the vyAkhyAnam is in the first pAdam as satyam jnAnam anantam brahma. SatChitAnanda Brahmam is the meaning. anantam means infinite; also has the name bhUma. Only bhUmA (fullness) is the sukham (bliss), not the alpam (trifle). So anantam is sukham, Anandam. Sat Chit Anandam.

"The Vid is one who has realized this Brahmam. How to realize it? By becoming the Atma that shines in the Akasha and realizing it in his lofty hRudaya guhA (cave of the heart). What is it that he gets thereby? He gets in one kSaNam (moment) all the sukha bhoga (enjoyment of bliss) completely (since they are all inherent in his svAtmAnandam). He gets nothing new. The para prApti (attainment of Param) lies in understanding the Advaita bhAva (state) of brahmaNA vipachitA, that is, remaining as the realized Brahmam, as pUrNAnandA (complete bliss)."

[It can be compared here that Lalita Sahastranamam says that it is only the svAtmAnanda lavam (a drop of the complete bliss), including the Ananda experienced by the Four-faced (Brahma).]

"The meaning in the third case (vetRumai) as 'going and reaching Brahmam' should not be taken here; since the other vAkyAs say 'he becomes Brahmam here and now', 'amrita iha bhavati', here it mentions this tRtIya vipakti abheda."


Post by saidevo on Oct 5, 2012 at 8:15am

Pages 183-186

4. bhUta-prakRti-mokSaM

At the end of the 13th chapter (verse 35) in Bhagavad Gita, Bhagavan says thus:

"They who, with their eye-of-wisdom, come to know the distinction between the kSetra (field) and kSetrajna (knower), and the liberation of beings from prakRti go to the Supreme." (Swami Chinmayananda)

Adi Sankara's explanation for this passage runs thus: "of the bhUta-prakRti = of maya, mokSaM = total destruction." But then scholars like Vedanta Desika give the meaning as "of the bhUta-prakRti = of Shakti or maya, mokSaM = leaves."

PeriyavAL: Thus the two Acharyas explain--that is, after the tatva-jnAnam sets in, maya perishes and they reach the Param--is this right, or to say that maya (just) leaves the tatva-jnAni is right? What happens after one becomes a jnAni? -- Perivaa kept asking such questions.

In reply my Guru BrahmaSri S.R.K. said, "Only PeriyavAL who has the experience has to explain with certainty. How can we say anything?"

PeriyavAL: 'kaNdavar viNdathillai (those who have seen never explained it). It will be understood only after getting into the state of a jnAni.--Saying this, he laughed (the question away).

5. What is the Shastra?

There are sUtras in Brahma Sutra that mention what is Shastra in four ways. Veda and the Shastras are one and the same. 'vedAt shAstram param nAsti*'. That which teaches hitam (good) to us is the shAstram (authority, scriptures).

The hitam is of many kinds. So Vyasa says that the shAstram is also of four kinds.

1. In the third Sutra that says 'shAstra yonitvAt', he resolves in the first explanation, taking the meaning 'the whole Vedas' for (the word) shAstram, that the one that arranged for the creation of those Vedas is Brahmam, so Brahmam is sarvajna (omniscient).

2. Only the Upanishads that are known as Vedanta are shAstram. Because of these only that it is taught that the ParamPoruL (Brahman) is of the nature saguNa-nirguNa. Therefore, the Vedas are the pramANam (verbal authority) to know Brahman.

3. 'kartA shAstrArthavat-tvAt'*--in the third chapter the Sutra that talks about jIvakartRtvam, he means only the Karma Kanda, the pUrva bhagam (the earlier part) as the shAstram.

4. 'shAstradR^ishhTyA tUpadesho vAmadevavat.h' (1.1.30)*--in this Sutra it is mentioned that Indra teaches Pratardana to do upAsanam (meditation) on him only, because having experienced the truth that the Shastras are the MahaVakyas, he is and with Brahmam. Therefore, it is concluded that only the Mahavakyam that talks about thejIvabrahma-aikyam (oneness of Jiva and Brahman) becomes the shAstram.

Thus the shAstra padam (the word Shastra) is given the vyAkhyAnam (explanation) in four ways with four different meanings.

6. samitpANi

The Upanishads have mentioned that one who desires to have brahma-jnAnam (knowledge of Brahman) should approach a Vidvan who is brahmaniSTha (absorbed in the contemplation of Brahman) and through him should know the Atma. It is mentioned in the Mundakopanishad that at such a time the disciple should take in his hand samit (twigs used in Vedic fire ceremony) as an offer to his guru.

'tadvijnArArtham sa gurumeva abhiyagacchet
samitpANiH srotriyam brahmaniSTham
' (Mundaka Upanishad 1.ii.12)

Our PeriyavAL here gave a wonderful, rare meaning.

"Joining both the hands well (in anjali, with devotion) is the meaning of (the term) samitpANi.

"Because, 'samyak, itau, pAnI yatra' (when the two pANis have joined well)--we can thus do the samAsam (combination) [after such vigrAham (analysis)]. There is no shramam (exertion) to go after the samit twig if the guru is acquired. Enough to just join the palms!"

What amount of compassion in PeriyavAL!

('anjali paramAmudra kSipram devapraSadinI' -- It is explained that Anjali is the mudra that fetches God's immediate grace ).

'vedashAstrAt paraM nAsti na daivaM keshavAt param'--Mahabhararata, 2.71

With both the hands held up, it is stated that there is no shastra superior to the Vedas; there is no God superior to Kesava. (This is) true; (this is) true and again (it is) true. (

'kartA shAstrArthavat-tvAt' --Sutra 31

kartA - the doer; shAstra - of the scriptures;Artha - meaning;
vat - possessing; tvAt - because of having the nature.

He performs actions. This is so because the scriptures are
meaningful. (

'shAstradR^ishhTyA tUpadesho vAmadevavat.h' -- 1.1.30 (30)

he declaration (made by Indra about himself, viz., that he is and with Brahman) is possible through intuition as attested by Sruti, as in the case of Vamadeva.

Pages 186-188

7. durgAM saraNamaham prapadye

An evening in Kanchi MaTham.

PeriyavAL: (to me) Just as it occurs oftentimes in the suprabhAta stotra, 'srI venkatesa caraNau saraNam prapadye' (Sri Venkatesa! I stay at Thy feet), does this 'saraNam prapadye' occur in any place on any Deivam (deity) in the Vedas?

Myself: No idea; only PeriyavAL should tell me about it.

PeriyavAL: Vedam says 'saraNam' only to AmbaaL who is the ParAShakti: 'durgAM devIM saraNamaham prapadye'. 'I surrender to Durga who removes all duHkham (sorrow)' is the meaning. To no one else in the Vedam is such 'saraNam' is mentioned. Therefore it is determined that ParAShakti is everything.

8. saptAdeva pramita

For Brahma Sutra (1.3.24), the rare explanation that PeriyavAL gave:

In the (following) vAkyam (assertion) that occurs in the Katopanishad,

angushTa mAtraH purushaH jyotirivaadhUmakaH |
IshAno bhutabhavyasya sa evAdya sa u shvaH

the word IshAna only refers to the paramporuL (Brahman). Therefore, the one referred to in the previous vAkyam as angushTa parimANa (thumb sized) is also the paramAtma. He appears as a drop in the cave of the mind. In the pUrva vAkhyam, the lingam (symbol) that is angushTam is weaker than the srutiIshAnaH is not the lingam (symbol). It should be taken as the direct pramANam (proof) of Sruti. So, with the sruti that is prabalam (strong), only the lingam that is durbalam (weak) should adjust itself.

This is why, it occurs in the last line of the Bhashyam as 'IshAnasaptasrutereva'.

(I am not able to understand what Paramacharya means in the lines that the angusTam is weaker than the sruti, etc. What does the word sruti mean here? Knowledgeable members may please explain. -- saidevo)

9. sahanAvavatu.

In the Mahagav camp where many vidvAns had assembled in the sabhA, when the sabhA was about to start, PeriyavAL called A.Sivaramakrishna SastrigaL and told him to give the bhASyam (meaning) of the sahanAvavatu mantra. After the SastrigaL finished giving the meaning, PeriyavAL's saMbhASaNaM (conversation):

PeriyavAL: How is this 'mA vidviShAvahai' [The prArthanA (prayer) is that by guru and I should remain without dveSa (hatred) for each other]? Since the guru is a jnAni (enlightened), will dveSa occur to a jnAni for a shiSya (disciple)? If the dveSa is there, how come he is a jnAni? What exactly is in the bhASyam?

Everyone was silent.

PeriyavAL: Bring the pustakam (book) and see.

The book was brought and read: 'Let there be no dveSa arising out of pramAdam between the guru and the shiSya.'

PeriyavAL: Oho? pramAdam is only thinking in a thattukittu (confused) manner (right)? Did the shiSya thattukittu (disciple in confusion) was deluded into thinking that his guru had dveSa towards him? (For) dveSa cannot approach a jnAni who is pUrNam (complete)!

It is not right to even say that the dveSa occured to a jnAni in an unguarded moment! It should only be taken as dveSam being on the side of the shiSya because of his delusion.

'tatra ko moha kah shokah' -- thus the jnAni is the one who has no shoka-moham (sadness and delusion)? Is not the moham the mUla kAraNam (root cause) for dveSam? Can there be a tree without root?

*** *** ***

1. angushTa mAtraH purushaH jyotirivaadhUmakaH |
IshAno bhutabhavyasya sa evAdya sa u shvaH

-- Katha Upanishad, Iv.13

The thumbsized Purusha, the lord of the past and the future, is like a flame without smoke; He stays the same today and tomorrow. This is verily That.

2. OM sahanAvavatu| 
saha nau bhunaktu| 
saha vIryaM karavAvahai| 
tEjasvinAvadhItamastu mA vidviShAvahai|| 
OM shAntiH.. shAntiH...shAntiH||

-- Mantra from ‘Bhrugu Valli of Taittariya Upanishad” of the Krishna Yajur Veda

There are five steps in this peace chant:
1. Sahanaavavatu means may we both be protected. The emphasis of this first word is protection.
2. Sahanau bunaktu means may we both be nourished. The emphasis continues to bunaktu, or nourishment.
3. Sahaveryam Karavavahai means may our activity become energetic. The key here is energy. 
4. Tejaswi Naava dheeta mastu means let there be radiance.
5. Maa Vid Vishavahai means let there not be hatred.

3. The intrinsic message of the Gayatri Mantra engulfs a wide gamut of ideals such as what the Isha Upanishad says: 

yastu sarvani bhutanyatmanayay vamu 
pashyeti sarva bhuteshu ch atmanam tato na 
vijugupsate yasiman sarvani 
bhutanyatmyvbhdi janatah tatra ko moha kah 
shokah eikatva manupashytaha

"He who sees all creatures in himself, himself in all creatures, does not show abhorrence to any one; knowing all beings to be one's own-self and seeing the unity of man-kind, how can there be for him delusions, sufferings and sorrows". 

kAnchi paramAchArya satsangam-shAshtrArtha-05
Pages 188-193

10. pUrNamadah pUrNamidaM

This Shanti mantra talks about the akaNda brahmam (infinite Brahman). pUrNam - infinite. It is pUrNam and besides from it came out this world which is also pUrNam. Even after this came out, that pUrNam still remains pUrNam. Thus, since this mantra talks the truth about Brahmam, all this world is just a super-imposed appearance on Brahmam, which is due to our pramAda (intoxication). pUrNatvam (infinitude) is akaNdam (without break). In that, kaNdams [that is, binna (brokenness)] will not really suit it.

11. odana savayAgam

Everyone has a right to chant the mantra in the odana-savayAgam. If there is shortage of food in the world, a yAgam (fire sacrifice) called odanasvam should be performed. By that act there will be anna chezhippu (food prosperity).

At the time of the pUrti (end) of such a yAgam, all the people in the manner of a cooperative prayer should recite the prArthanA mantra.

It is mentioned in the TaittirIya brAhmaNa (2.7) that in this prArthanA one and all [without any varNa-bhedam (class distinction)] should recite the mantra. In a large sabhA (assembly), PeriyavAL said:

PeriyavAL: It can be recited by everyone without any jAti-madha veRupAdu (caste-religion distinction)--is there any such mantra?

The Sabha was stunned.

PeriyavAL: One who is pAtram (fit) for annam (food) is only the hungry. No adhikAri bhedam (distinction of authority) there.

(Anyone who is hungry is fit to receive food. Except the hunger there is no place for any distinction there.)

In the same way, for the yAgam that removes the food famine which is common to sarva jana (all people), the prArthana mantram should be recited by everyone.

Saying this, he quoted 'sarve puruSAH | sarvAN evAnnAn yavarunte | sarvAn puruSAn | (2.7)'. What a sarvaGYatvam (omniscience)!

12. braHmaNOhi pratisTHAhaM

An ArAdhanam (homage) day in Tenambakkam -- two o' clock in the afternoon.

PeriyavAL was sitting on the bank of a pond, keeping one leg in the waters. It was time for me as ArAdhana brAhmaNAL to get inside for the ArAdhanam, wearing the vastram (cloth). PeriyavAL's AGYA (order) for me, calling me by his clap of hands, to sit near him with a piece of paper and pen. The pen and paper were brought at once! PeriyavAL started uttering Sanskrit words one by one. At some points, just telling me the meaning and asking me to produce the Sanskrit padam (word), when the words formed a line, a beautiful stuti called 'Durga Pancharatnam' came up. [Svetasvara Upanishad sAram (essence)]. Each shloka (verse) ends with 'mAM pAhi viSveshvari mokSadAtrI'. (Thisshloka is written on a marble stone on the left side when one goes to Kamakshi temple).

In the middle of the above stotram (hymn) when the word 'You are the one who taught the Gita' (upadiSTa-gItA) came up, looking at my considering it for a kSaNam (moment), he asked, "Why, does it seem incorrect to you to say that Kamakshi did gItopadesham?" I kept quiet with a smile.

Forthwith an AGYA clapping hands to bring the Gita bhASyam (commentary) book. The next moment came the bhASya book in eight volumes! PeriyavAL turned the page once, and showed me the first page that came up and said, "Read this shloka and its bhASyam."

This is that shlokam: 'braHmaNOhi pratiSTAhaM'

"For the changeless, eternal Brahmam, the Maya which is Shakti is the pratiSTA (that through which Brahmam spreads as the many worlds is called pratiSTA). I am That. I am the Brahmam; and I am its pratiSTA will be appropriate; because, there is a bhASyam that 'shakti shaktimatoH abhedAt' [both the Shakti and the One who has it are not of different tatvam (nature)]." 

As I read up to this line, PeriyavAL asked, "Is not Kamakshi the Shakti of Brahmam? 'tatvamasi parabrahma mahiShi'. Is not Shakti the Brahmam, therefore to say that Kamakshi instructed Gita (upadiSTa-gItA) is correct only, right?"

For the states of wonder, happiness and bliss that befell me then, there is indeed no limit.

Meantime, to those who sent word for me the ArAdhana brAhmaNAL, he said, "A big shAstra vichAram (scriptural deliberation) is going on; he will come once it is over." and then only after getting the 'pancharatnam' ready in about an hour, he gave me permission. Even in that he dictated only four shlokas and gave me AGYA, "You write the fifth in the same way, right now, before your meal." When I said that I was not familiar with writing shlokas, he sent me inside with the words, "ellAm varum pO (you will anyhow get it, go)".

Later, when the ArAdhana bhojanam (Aradhana meal session) was going on, PeriyavAL surprisingly came and stood near my leaf-plate. That is, in the old Tenambakkam building we brahmins sat in two rows at 16+16 persons per row. From the other room one should go round the outer walls to come to my room. But then PeriyavAL used a square hole at the bottom of the central wall, squeezed his head and daNDam (staff) slowly through it, came fully out of it and stood before me; how can I forget that scene!

Forthwith he asked me, "You got the fifth shlokam?" When I spread out an empty hand, he dictated the fifth shloka himself to me twice and said, "Remember to write this along with the other four shlokams and give them to me." Thus, the avatara of Durga Pancharatnam took place on a Guru Aradhana day!

I saw with my own eyes that he is not only a mahA jnAni, but a mahA yogi too, one who is capable of exercising the aNimAdi siddhi (the eight siddhis beginning with the Anima Siddhi) anAyAsa (effortlessly)!

Pages 193-196 (concluding part)
13. AbrahmakIta jananI

--a nAmAvaLi (row of names) in this phrase in Lalitha SahasranAmam. The nAmA next to this is varNASramaviDHAyinI. Combining these two names, PeriyavAL answered a difficult question.

When PeriyavAL was giving darshan after the puja was over and he returned after his bhikSA, a bhaktA (devotee) asked: "Since Lalitha SahasranAnam mentions that AmbaaL is the mother of all this world we all become sahoDharAs (brothers and sisters). If this is so, why to move with some people without physically coming in touch with them or touching them? How is this untouchability appropriate?"

Periyavar: For this question (why is there such distinction) the answer is in the very next nAmAvaLi. "AmbaaL who is the Mother of everyone has also established the niyama (regulation) of varNASrama (four divisions). She is also the varNASramaviDHAyinI!

14. ataH param

Just as two kinds of Brahmam, saguNa, nirguNa (with and without attributes) are accepted by the Advaitins, it is mentioned (in the Sruti) that those who get brahmaloka prApti (attainment of Brahma Lokam) reach the Karya Brahmam and there by him get tatvajnAnam (higher truth) taught and at the time of pUrti kAlam (dissolution), with him reach ParamaMukti by their brahmAmajnAnam, so they do not get rebirth.

The doubt 'of these two Muktis which is better qualitatively (param or higher)' and the question 'are there indeed two kinds of Muktis?' arise. PeriyavAL explained this thus:

"Vyasa in his own vAc (words) says in Brahma Sutra that he (such a soul), without getting it (his attainment) pUrti (complete) even after reaching the Brahma Lokam, reaches the Mukti that is even higher, along with the Karya Brahmam.

kAryatyaye tadadhyakSena sahAtaH paramabhidhAnAt

Since it is mentioned that when the Karya Brahma Lokam also is in praLaya (dissolution), he attains tatvajnAnam, and along with that lokAtyakSa (ruler of that world) Brahma, ataH param - they both reach the even higher paramapadam (feet of Paraman), this establishes the presence of krama mukti (progressive liberation). 'Because it is impossible for the paraprApti to happen just by going to a place, without realizing that he remains as the ParaBrahmam himself'--the Sutra BhASyam mentions it in this way. So, like the two kinds of vidyA (knowledge) paravidyA, aparavidyAmukti is also two. In them the abheda sAkSAtkAra paramukti (realization of distintionless Paramukti) will happen bytatvajnAnam is the opinion of the Sutra."

Lalitha SahasranAmam:
285. AbrahmakItajananyai ~nama: 
-- one who created everything from Brahma down to the worm.

286. varNASramaviDHAyinyai ~nama:
-- onw who established the system of varNASrama.

Brahma Sutra IV.3.10 (527):
kAryatyaye tadadhyakSena sahAtaH paramabhidhAnAt

"On the dissolution of the Brahmaloka (the souls attain) along with the ruler of that world what is higher than that (i.e., the Supreme Brahman) on account of the declaration of the Sruti."

15. yaccAsya santato bhAvah tasmAdAtmeti gayate

When explaining the meaning of Atma shabda (the word Atma), PeriyavAL mentioned this vAkyam (shlokam) many times to me in is speech:

yaccApnoti yadAdatte yaccAtti vishayAniha |
yaccAsya santato bhAvaH tasmAdAtmeti gIyate ||

and explained its essential meaning:

"jAgrat, svapna, suSupti (waking, dreaming, deep sleep) -- in these three states, the Atma (jIvan) that looks different as if he is of three different natures, in reality, continuing nirvikAra (without change) as sAkSi (witness) for the three (states), remains prakAsha (shining) in (a state of) Ananda (bliss), as a single kutasta (immutable entity), antar bahicha vyApin (spreading in and out)."

When saying this, the way he explained it with abhinaya (gestures), rolling both his hands in four directions and speaking yacca asya santato bhAvaH is the rarest of the rarities.

yaccApnoti yadAdatte yaccAtti vishayAniha |
yaccAsya santato bhAvaH tasmAdAtmeti gIyate ||
 -- Vishnu Sahasranama

"That which pervades, thatwhich receives, that which enjoys the objects,and that which exists always, is called the Atman."

16. The complete knowledge is only in Vedanta

"Although the many Shastras speak differently of Atma, and although it is spoken with finality in the Karma kANdam which is the Purva kANdam of the Vedas that Atma that goes to Paralokam and returns is one who is different from the body, Atma's paramArta nityamukta (identity with the Supreme and eternally liberated) nature is explained only in the Upanishads that become the Vedanta. Since this tatvam (truth) is not knowable from any other books and pramANas (testimonies), for everyone to learn the tatvam of the Upanishads through a guru, consider, realize, get convinced and then experience the svasta mokSa (blissful liberation) which is a state of silence, the almighty Kamakshi should give Her grace."

PeriyavAL has given such upadesham several times.

No comments:

Post a Comment