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Thursday, February 20, 2014


Mahashivaratri is considered as Shiva’s marriage day with Girija or his birthday. 
The day is ideal for spiritual advancement and so, the day and night is spent praying, worshipping. 
Rudra destroys sorrow and difficulties. 
He is called AASHUTHOSHA, one who is pleased easily and grants any thing prayed for. 
Shiva means auspicious. 
The ash on his body indicates vairagya. 
No one can destroy ash ! 
He lives in the burial ground. 
The serpent on his neck represents time. 
Since he controls time he is MAHAAKAALA. 
His vehicle Nandi symbolizes Dharma. 
Shakti (energy) is his wife. 
To indicate that he takes care of even those who are rejected by every one else, he shelters Bhoothagana.

He is Nataraja. 
Births and deaths, all changes taking place with time are controlled by movements, he is engaged in Thaandava nrithya. 
His third eye indicates movement upwards.
The three lines of Vibhoothi represent Thriguna, Thriloka. 
If thapathrayas are overcome, realization of the self is possible. 
The combination of Shiva and Shakti is indicated with the ardha nareeswara concept. 
Likewise, the shiva-shakti within us should merge and we should realize the atman. 
This is the purpose behind the shivaratri celebration.
Before worshipping Rudra, one should become Rudra. "naa rudrO rudramarchayEt".
It is usual to say,
"dehO dEvaalayah prOktO dEvO jeevah sadaashivaha
tyajEdagnaana nirmaalyam sOham bhaavEna poojayEt"
(My body is the temple.  Jeeva is Sadaashiva.   Removing the dirt of Ajnaana and assuming that I am that sadaashiva, I worship Him.).
One may remember Ramakrishna Paramhamsa's method of worship of mother Kaali.
Mahaanyaasa is a process where the worshipper establishes Rudra in the different parts of his own body to feel that he is Rudra himself.   Then through Namaka and Chamaka the Lingam is bathed.
It should be remembered that Vishnu himself tells Daksha prjaapati (vide Bhaagavatha),
" aham brahmaa cha sharvashcha jagataha kaaraNam param
aatmEshvara upadrishtaa swayam drigavishEshaNaha."
( I am the primordial cause of this world.   I am Brahma and Shiva also.    Atma, Eshvara   etc., are all one without any differences.).
Shivapuraana also says the same thing.
" kvachidbrahmaa kvachidvishnuhu kvachidrudraha prashasyatE..."
Bhishma in the Mahabharatha says,
kO hi shaktO bhavam jnaatum madvidhaha paramshvaram...."
There are references in various upanishats to show that there is no difference between the two- Shiva and Vishnu.    More on this some time later...
Let us now start the Mahaanyasa and rudraabhishEka on this auspicious day of shivaratri.

Sri Swami Sivananda

The Story of King Chitrabhanu

Spiritual Significance of the Ritual


This falls on the 13th (or 14th) day of the dark half of Maagha,  (February-March). The name means "the night of Shiva". The ceremonies take place chiefly at night. This is a festival observed in honour of Lord Shiva. Shiva was married to Parvati on this day. 

People observe a strict fast on this day. Some devotees do not even take a drop of water. They keep vigil all night. The Shiva Lingam is worshipped throughout the night by washing it every three hours with milk, curd, honey, rose water, etc., whilst the chanting of the Mantra Om Namah Shivaya continues. Offerings of bael leaves are made to the Lingam. Bael leaves are very sacred as, it is said, Lakshmi resides in them. 

Hymns in praise of Lord Shiva, such as the Shiva Mahimna Stotra of Pushpadanta or Ravana's Shiva Tandava Stotra are sung with great fervour and devotion. People repeat the Panchakshara Mantra, Om Namah Shivaya.

 He who utters the Names of Shiva during Shivaratri, with perfect devotion and concentration, is freed from all sins. He reaches the abode of Shiva and lives there happily. He is liberated from the wheel of births and deaths. Many pilgrims flock to the places where there are Shiva temples. 

The Story of King Chitrabhanu

In the Shanti Parva of the Mahabharata, Bhishma, whilst resting on the bed of arrows and discoursing on Dharma, refers to the observance of Maha Shivaratri by King Chitrabhanu. The story goes as follows. 

Once upon a time King Chitrabhanu of the Ikshvaku dynasty, who ruled over the whole of Jambudvipa, was observing a fast with his wife, it being the day of Maha Shivaratri. The sage Ashtavakra came on a visit to the court of the king. 

The sage asked, "O king! why are you observing a fast today?" 

King Chitrabhanu explained why. He had the gift of remembering the incidents of his previous birth. 

The king said to the sage: "In my past birth I was a hunter in Varanasi. My name was Suswara. My livelihood was to kill and sell birds and animals. One day I was roaming the forests in search of animals. I was overtaken by the darkness of night. Unable to return home, I climbed a tree for shelter. It happened to be a bael tree. I had shot a deer that day but I had no time to take it home. I bundled it up and tied it to a branch on the tree. As I was tormented by hunger and thirst, I kept awake throughout the night. I shed profuse tears when I thought of my poor wife and children who were starving and anxiously awaiting my return. To pass away the time that night I engaged myself in plucking the bael leaves and dropping them down onto the ground. 

"The day dawned. I returned home and sold the deer. I bought some food for myself and for my family. I was about to break my fast when a stranger came to me, begging for food. I served him first and then took my food. 

"At the time of death, I saw two messengers of Lord Shiva. They were sent down to conduct my soul to the abode of Lord Shiva. I learnt then for the first time of the great merit I had earned by the unconscious worship of Lord Shiva during the night of Shivaratri. They told me that there was a Lingam at the bottom of the tree. The leaves I dropped fell on the Lingam. My tears which I had shed out of pure sorrow for my family fell onto the Lingam and washed it. And I had fasted all day and all night. Thus did I unconsciously worship the Lord. 

"I lived in the abode of the Lord and enjoyed divine bliss for long ages. I am now reborn as Chitrabhanu." 

Spiritual Significance of the Ritual

The Scriptures record the following dialogue between Sastri and Atmanathan, giving the inner meaning of the above story. 

Sastri: It is an allegory. The wild animals that the hunter fought with are lust, anger, greed, infatuation, jealousy and hatred. The jungle is the fourfold mind, consisting of the subconscious mind, the intellect, the ego and the conscious mind. It is in the mind that these "wild animals" roam about freely. They must be killed. Our hunter was pursuing them because he was a Yogi. If you want to be a real Yogi you have to conquer these evil tendencies. Do you remember the name of the hunter in the story? 

Atmanathan: Yes, he was called Suswara.

Sastri: That's right. It means "melodious". The hunter had a pleasant melodious voice. If a person practices Yama and Niyama and is ever conquering his evil tendencies, he will develop certain external marks of a Yogi. The first marks are lightness of the body, health, steadiness, clearness of countenance and a pleasant voice. This stage has been spoken of in detail in the Swetaswatara Upanishad. The hunter or the Yogi had for many years practised Yoga and had reached the first stage. So he is given the name Suswara. Do you remember where he was born? 

Atmanathan: Yes, his birthplace is Varanasi. 

Sastri: Now, the Yogis call the Ajna Chakra by the name Varanasi. This is the point midway between the eyebrows. It is regarded as the meeting place of the three nerve currents (Nadis), namely, the Ida, Pingala and the Sushumna. An aspirant is instructed to concentrate on that point. That helps him to conquer his desires and evil qualities like anger and so on. It is there that he gets a vision of the Divine Light within. 

Atmanathan: Very interesting! But how do you explain his climbing up the bael tree and all the other details of the worship? 

Sastri: Have you ever seen a bael leaf? 

Atmanathan: It has three leaves on one stalk. 

Sastri: True. The tree represents the spinal column. The leaves are threefold. They represent the Ida, Pingala and Sushumna Nadis, which are the regions for the activity of the moon, the sun and fire respectively, or which may be thought of as the three eyes of Shiva. The climbing of the tree is meant to represent the ascension of the Kundalini Shakti, the serpentine power, from the lowest nerve centre called the Muladhara to the Ajna Chakra. That is the work of the Yogi. 

Atmanathan: Yes, I have heard of the Kundalini and the various psychic centres in the body. Please go on further; I am very interested to know more. 

Sastri: Good. The Yogi was in the waking state when he began his meditation. He bundled up the birds and the animals he had slain and, tying them on a branch of the tree, he rested there. That means he had fully conquered his thoughts and rendered them inactive. He had gone through the steps of Yama, Niyama, Pratyahara, etc. On the tree he was practising concentration and meditation. When he felt sleepy, it means that he was about to lose consciousness and go into deep sleep. So he determined to keep awake. 

Atmanathan: That is now clear to me; you certainly do explain it very well. But why did he weep for his wife and children? 

Sastri: His wife and children are none other than the world. One who seeks the Grace of God must become an embodiment of love. He must have an all-embracing sympathy. His shedding of tears is symbolical of his universal love. In Yoga also, one cannot have illumination without Divine Grace. Without practising universal love, one cannot win that Grace. One must perceive one's own Self everywhere. The preliminary stage is to identify one's own mind with the minds of all created beings. That is fellow-feeling or sympathy. Then one must rise above the limitations of the mind and merge it in the Self. That happens only in the stage of Samadhi, not earlier. 

Atmanathan: Why did he pluck and drop the bael leaves? 

Sastri: That is mentioned in the story only to show that he had no extraneous thoughts. He was not even conscious of what he was doing. All his activity was confined to the three Nadis. The leaves, I have said before, represent the three Nadis. He was in fact in the second state, namely, the dream state, before he passed into the deep sleep state. 

Atmanathan: He kept vigil the whole night, it is said. 

Sastri: Yes, that means that he passed through the deep sleep state successfully. The dawning of day symbolises the entrance into the Fourth state called Turiya or superconsciousness. 

Atmanathan: It is said that he came down and saw the Lingam. What does that mean? 

Sastri: That means that in the Turiya state he saw the Shiva Lingam or the mark of Shiva in the form of the inner lights. In other words, he had the vision of the Lord. That was an indication to him that he would realise the supreme, eternal abode of Lord Shiva in course of time. 

Atmanathan: So it appears from what you say that the sight of the lights is not the final stage? 

Sastri: Oh no! That is only one step, albeit a difficult one. Now think of how the story continues. He goes home and feeds a stranger. A stranger is one whom you have not seen before. The stranger is no other than the hunter himself, transformed into a new person. The food was the likes and dislikes which he had killed the previous night. But he did not consume the whole of it. A little still remained. That was why he had to be reborn as King Chitrabhanu. Going to the world of Shiva (Salokya) is not enough to prevent this. There are other stages besides Salokya. These are Samipya, Sarupya and finally Sayujya. Have you not heard of Jaya and Vijaya returning from Vaikunta? 

Atmanathan: Yes, I have understood now.

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