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Tuesday, July 16, 2013

LakumikarA--what is the meaning?

LakumikarA--what is the meaning?
author:....... Dr.R.KrishNamUrti ShAstrigaL, Chennai-4
compiler:..... T.S. Kothandarama Sarma
source:....... Maha PeriyavaL - Darisana AnubhavangaL vol.2, pages 155-171
publisher:.... VAnathi Padhippaham (May 2005 Edition)
type:......... book, Tamil 

pages 155-160
Greatness of AmbAL

AmbAL, Shiva--although these are of the same tattvam--principle, more than Shiva, to AmbAL--to Shakti--is the greatness; this BhagavadpAdAL explains in his 'saundaryalaharI' stotram. In its first shlokam--verse, his saying that without Shakti, Shiva cannot budge an inch--is it adhishayokti--techinique of exaggeration? or is it real? PeriyavAL asked this question about twenty years back. (see note 01)

Everyone had settled down, getting ready to begin the aniversary celebrations of the SaMskRta SAhitya PariShad. When PeriyavAL came to the stage, his AjnA--orders came forthwith to bring shrI RanganAtha ShAstrigaL from ChinnakAnchi. The AjnA was for him to commence the celebrations. And then as PeriyavAL did nirbandham--insisted, that he speak a few words at the commencement of the SabhA, ShAstrigaL said, "It is very ashaktam--unable, for me; can't say anything."

shrI PeriyavAL told him, "Say that very sentence", and then prompted him with a blessing, "say only the shlokam 'shivaH shaktyA yukto'".

This is an explanation that PeriyavAL gave in upadesham--teaching (on that occasion for the verse). "In shrI Rudram, 10th anuvAkam, comes the mantra

या ते रुद्र शिवा तनूः शिवा विश्वाह भेषजी ।
शिवा रुद्रस्य भेषजी तया नो मृड जीवसे ॥ १०.२ ॥

yA te rudra shivA tanUH shivA vishvAha bheshhajI |
shivA rudrasya bheshhajI tayA no mR^iDa jIvase || 10.2 ||

[Rudra! That which is your auspicious form, auspicious as the universal panacea for all ills, auspicious as the bestower of (knowledge and realisation of) Your Rudra form—with that make us live in happiness.--Tr.SvAmi KRShNAnanda]

"This shloka that says 'shivaH shaktyA yukto', remains as the vyAkhyAnam--exposition, as the veda-mUla-pramANa--Vedic evidence, for the above mantra; therefore, this is not just stuti--eulogy, but only the truth.

"Hey Parameshvara! As a mangaLakara--auspicious, part (half) of your body, as the eternal panacea that cures everyone, even you of your viSham--poison, remains the Shakti known as UmA; only because of her you live." The SabhA was immersed in surprise at PeriyavAL's explanation. 

"For the above mantra in the VidyAraNya BhAShyam, for the root word 'jIvase', the meaning, 'By that Shakti you should help us live; and you do help us live' is given in a casual manner."

That shrI PeriyavAL, using just the meaning of the root word ('jIvasa'), explained this mantra as the mUla-mantra--root mantra for the 'saundarya laharI' (verse), goes to prove that he is himself a Shiva avatar!

Three nATakas--plays, three bhAShyas--commentaries

In kAnchi MaTham, PeriyavAL one day asked me, "Do you know that in the same way that Adi Shankara's prasthAnatrayam (sUtra bhAShyam, gItA bhAShyam, upaniShad bhAShyam) is excellent, the nATakatrayam (vikrama UrvashIyam, mAlavikAgnimitram, abhijnAna-shAkuntalam) is excellent?"

"No, I don't know", I said.

"Do you know the mangaLa shlokas of the three nATakas--plays?"

Saying, "Two I know, one is not in memory", I recited the shlokas of 'shAkuntalam' and 'mAlavikAgnimitram'. The meaning of the shloka (in the play 'shAkuntalam', verse and translation added--sd) is as follows:

yA sRShTiH sraShTur AdyA vahati vidhihutaM yA havir yA cha hotrI
ye dve kAlaM vidhattah shruti-viShaya-guNA yA sthitA vyApya vishvam |
yAm AhuH sarva-bIja/bhUta-prakRtir iti yayA prANinaH prANavantaH
pratyakShAbhiH prapannas tanubhir avatu vas tAbhir aShTAbhir IshaH ||
--abhijnAna-shAkuntalam, Act 1, verse 1

(That visible form, viz. water) which (was) the first creation of the Creator; (that, viz. fire) which hears the oblation offered-according-to-rule; and (that visible form, viz. the priest) which (is) the offerer-of-theoblation; (those) two (visible forms, viz. the Sun and Moon) which regulate time; (that, viz. ether) which perpetually pervades all space, having the quality (sound) perceptible by the ear; (that, viz. the earth) which they call the originator of all created-things; (that, viz. the air) by which living beings are furnished with breath may Isha [the supreme Lord Shiva], endowed with [manifested in] these eight visible forms, preserve you!--Tr.Monier Williams

The meaning of the other shloka (in the play 'mAlavikAgnimitram', verse added--sd):

ekaiShvarya-sthitatopi praNata-bahuphalo yaH svayaM kRttivAsAH
kAntA-saMmishra-dehopya-viShaya-manasAM yaH purastAdyatInAm |
aShTAbhiryasya kRtsnaM jagadapi tanubhir-bibhrato nAbhimAnaH
sanmArgAlokanAya vyapanayatu sa nastAMmasIM vRttim-IshaH ||
--mAlavikAgnimitram, opening verse

"Although filled with excellent wealth, still wearing only an elephant's skin; although having a body merged with his wife's, still invisible even to the complete renunciates; although pervading the entire universe and wearing it through his eight bodies, still without any pride;--may that Parameshvara remove the tAmasa--gross thoughts from our mind, so that we can see the sanmArga--right the author"

PeriyavAL, saying, "I shall tell you the mangaLa shlokam of 'vikramorvashIyam', recited the shloka and gave an adbhuta--marvelous, explanation (verse added--sd):

vedAnteShu yamAhurekapuruShaM vyApya sthitaM rodasI
yasmin-Ishvara ityananyAviShayaH shabdo yathArthAkSharaH |
antaryashcha mumukShumirniyAmita-prANAdibhir-mRgyate
sa sthANuH sthira-bhaktiryogasumamo niHshreyasAyAstu vaH ||
--vikrama UrvashIyam, opening verse

1. "In the first pAda--quarter, which says, 'One who is mentioned in the VedAntas as the jagat-kAraNam--cause of the universe, and is vyApaka--pervading the bhUloka-devaloka--earth and heaven', the first chapter of the (Brahma)SUtra-bhAShyam will be included. In the SUtra-bhAShyam, the prathamAdhyAyam--first chapter, only talks about the samanvaya--conjunction, of the VedAntas in the jagat-kAraNa-vastu--entity that is the cause of the universe?

2. "In the second pAda, which says, 'to whom the word Ishvara is the most appropriate and filled with meaning', the second adhyAyam of the SUtra-bhAShyam will be included. What AchAryAL (Shankara) in the second adhyAya--chapter, rejecting all the AkShepaNas--objections, to the principle that for the sarva-vedAntam--all VedAnta, the samanvaya--conjunction, is only with the One Ishvara, did sthApana--maintained, that the VedAntas only explain the One ParamporUL--Brahman, KalidAsa has abstracted in this second pAda--quarter.

3. "The third pAda that 'one who is sought by those who desire mokSha--liberation, in dhyAnam--meditation, controlling and shrinking the prANA-pAnAdi--breath and drinking/food', is the sAram--essence, of the SUtra-bhAShyam's third adhyAya. Aren't there in vistAram--elaboration, the upAsanAdi--intense practices, that are mokSha-sAdhana--means of liberation explained in detail?

4. "The fourth pAda that 'which parampoRuL--Brahman, that is nirvikAra--changeless, and is easy to attain by bhakti--devotion, may that Ishvara grant us mokSha', is the sAram--essence, of the SUtra-bhAShyam's fourth adhyAya. Thus, the four adhyAyas--chapters, of the SUtra-bhAShya and this shlokam are in samam--on par!

"When doing pUrti--completion, of these nATakas--plays, KalidAsa prays for his mokSha (in the concluding shloka of abhijnAna-shAkuntalam, thus):

"pravartatAM prkRti-hitAya pArthivaH
sarasvatI shrutamahatAM mahIyatAm |
mamApi cha kShapayatu nIlalohitaH
punarbhavaM parigata-shakti rAtmabhUH ||

"May the king strive for the welfare of his people. May the language (of Goddess SarasvatI) that stays great by the Vedas flourish. May Shiva, called NIlalohita, who is a svayambhu--appeared on his own, remove my rebirth too."

"In such manner, has he has summarized mokSha--liberation, as the final lakShya--goal, of his nATakas--plays! Therefore, KAlidAsa's nATakatrayI looks like the prasthAnatrayam.

01. saundarya laharI, verse 1

shivaH shaktyA yukto yadi bhavati shaktaH prabhavituM
na cedevaM devo na khalu kushalaH spanditumapi |
atas tvAm ArAdhyaaM hari-hara-viri~nchAdibhir api
praNantuM stotuM vA katham akR^ita puNyaH prabhavati || 1 ||

Lord Shiva, only becomes able, 
to do creation in this world, 
along with Shakti.
Without her, even an inch he cannot move;

And so how can, one who does not do good deeds,
or one who does not sing your praise,
become adequate to worship you
Oh, goddess mine,
who is worshipped by the Trinity.
--tr. P.R.Ramachander

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